This lesson will look at passive participle clauses.
Learning to notice participle clauses will improve your reading skills. If you use participle clauses in your speaking and writing it will also improve your grammatical range and accuracy band score.
Academic Language Analysis
The telegraph, which was developed in the 1830’s and 1840’s, completely changed communication.
Example 1 is an example of a non-defining relative clause being used to add extra information to a main clause. It can be rewritten (see examples 2 and 3).
The telegraph, developed in the 1830s and 1840s, completely changed communication.
Developed in the 1830s and 1840s, the telegraph completely changed
Examples 2 and 3 are examples of passive participle clauses. They have exactly the same meaning as example 1. Notice that the meaning is passive and that the relative pronoun ‘which’ and verb ‘be’ is omitted (deleted).
Exercise 1 | Identify the Grammar
Exercise 2 | Use the Grammar
Exercise 3 | Practice the Grammar
If you want to have a look at some free essay writing lessons, visit our Academic and General IELTS Task 2 Writing page.